IoT Overview

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  REST <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, Web API <ref></ref>
CoAP (RFC 7252, RFC 8075, RFC 8323) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, MQTT <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>
TCP <ref></ref>, UDP
6LoWPAN (Short range, RFC 4944, RFC 6282, RFC 6775)
LPWAN (Long range, constrained networks) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref> 6tisch (RFC 8180) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref> 6lo (Constrained devices, RFC 7973, RFC 8066) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>
<ref></ref>, <ref></ref>
(not LTE-M a.k.a. LTE Category 0) <ref></ref>
(ETSI GS LTN 003) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>
Wi-SUN FAN <ref></ref> IEEE 802.15.4-2003 IEEE 802.15.4e Bluetooth Low Energy
ITU-T G-9959
(ETSI TS 102 939-1, RFC 8105)
RS-485 MS/TP (RFC 8163) NFC <ref></ref>, <ref></ref> Low-Power Wi-Fi
(IEEE 802.11ah)
Standardisation forum LoRa Alliance, SemTech 3GPP Low Throughput Networks (LTN) ETSI Industry Specification Group, Sigfox Wi-SUN Alliance IEEE 802.15 Working Group for Wireless Specialty Networks (WSN) ITU-T, Z-Wave Alliance ETSI, DECT Forum IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks
AAA Credentials 7-bit NwkID, 25-bit DevAddr, 64-bit AppEUI, 64-bit DevEUI, NwkSKey, AppSKey, AppKey 32-bit device ID 32-bit HomeID, 8-bit NodeID 20-bit TPUI, 40-bit RFDI, 40-bit IPEI
Topology Star of stars Star Star Mesh Star (RFC 7668), mesh <ref></ref> Star, cluster, mesh Star
Range [m] 2,000 - 5,000 1 - 100 100 50 (indoor), 300 (outdoor)
MAX #nodes
Routing None Layer-3 RPL (RFC 6550, mandatory) or Layer-2 MHDS (optional) Layer-3 RPL (RFC 6550) <ref></ref>, <ref></ref>
Multiple Access and modulation Class A: LORA, GFSK (Not in US) ; Class B: beacons DSSS, OFDMA/SC-FDMA UNB GFSK (downlink) or UNB DBPSK (uplink) Frequency Hopping Beacon mode: CSMA/CA in Contention Access Period (CAP), TDMA in Contention Free Period (CFP) ; beaconless mode: unslotted CSMA/CA TSCH TDMA FSK FDMA/TDMA TDD
Peak Data Rate [kbps] 0.2 to 50 (EU 433 MHz, China) ; 50 to 250 (EU 868 MHz) ; 0.98 to 21.9 (US) 30 to 60 100 to 600 Bauds 50 to 300 250 9.6 to 100 9.6 1,152 95,200 Bauds 424 Up to 20,000
Packet Size [Bytes] 59 to 250 (EU 433 and 868 MHz, China) ; 19 to 250 (US 915 MHz) 1,600 12 127 500
Frequency Band(s) ISM bands (EU = 433, 868 MHz ; US = 915 MHz ; China = 780 MHz) Deprecated GSM band ISM band @ EMEA = 868 MHz ; America and Oceania = 902 MHz EU: 870-876 MHz 868, 908 MHz 1,880-1,920 MHz
Radio Duty Cycle <ref></ref> min 1%, MAX 100% Up to 100% Less than 1% per hour, MAX 140 12-Byte messages per day Preamble sampling in ContikiMAC Preamble sampling a.k.a. Coordinated Sampled Listening (CSL) mode Scheduled transmissions Preamble sampling a.k.a. Frequently Listening (FL) mode Scheduled transmissions, paging interval from 10 ms to 327s

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